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## George Boole and Claude Shannon: Two Mini-Biographies

*Paul J. Nahin*

### in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691176000
- eISBN:
- 9781400844654
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0003
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents brief biographical sketches of George Boole and Claude Shannon. George was born in Lincoln, a town in the north of England, on November 2, 1815. His father John, while simple ... More

## The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

*Paul J. Nahin*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691176000
- eISBN:
- 9781400844654
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

Boolean algebra, also called Boolean logic, is at the heart of the electronic circuitry in everything we use—from our computers and cars, to home appliances. How did a system of mathematics ... More

## Boole, Shannon, and Probability

*Paul J. Nahin*

### in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691176000
- eISBN:
- 9781400844654
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0006
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

George Boole and Claude Shannon shared a deep interest in the mathematics of probability. Boole's interest was, of course, not related to the theory of computation—he was a century too early for ... More

## Some Combinatorial Logic Examples

*Paul J. Nahin*

### in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691176000
- eISBN:
- 9781400844654
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0007
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

The entire point of Shannon's 1948 “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” was to study the theoretical limits on the transmission of information from point A (the source) to point B (the receiver) ... More

## Cybernetics and the New Complexity of Machines

*John Johnston*

### in The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- August 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780262101264
- eISBN:
- 9780262276351
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- The MIT Press
- DOI:
- 10.7551/mitpress/9780262101264.003.0002
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter makes a case for the fundamental complexity of cybernetic machines as a new species of automata, existing both “in the metal and in the flesh,” to use Norbert Wiener’s expression, as ... More

## Enemies, Parasites, and Noise

*Paul Kockelman*

### in The Art of Interpretation in the Age of Computation

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- July 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780190636531
- eISBN:
- 9780190636562
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190636531.003.0002
- Subject:
- Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter begins by outlining some common properties of channels, infrastructure, and institutions. It connects and critiques the assumptions and interventions of three influential intellectual ... More

## Redesign: Data’s Turbulent Pasts and Future Paths

*Colin Koopman*

### in How We Became Our Data: A Genealogy of the Informational Person

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- January 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780226626444
- eISBN:
- 9780226626611
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- University of Chicago Press
- DOI:
- 10.7208/chicago/9780226626611.003.0006
- Subject:
- Philosophy, General

This chapter develops an argument for what resistance might look like under conditions of infopower. Equally important, it also describes what forms such resistance to infopower are unlikely to take. ... More

## Logic Switching Circuits

*Paul J. Nahin*

### in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691176000
- eISBN:
- 9781400844654
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0005
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

Today's digital circuitry is built with electronic technology that the telephone engineers of the 1930s and the pioneer computer designers of the 1940s would have thought to be magic. The first real ... More

## Beyond Boole and Shannon

*Paul J. Nahin*

### in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691176000
- eISBN:
- 9781400844654
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0010
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

Boole and Shannon never studied the physics of computation. Obviously Boole simply could not have, as none of the required physics was even known in his day, and Shannon was nearing the end of his ... More

## Visual Perception 1950–2000

*John Ross*

### in Inside Psychology: A science over 50 years

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- March 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199228768
- eISBN:
- 9780191696336
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228768.003.0019
- Subject:
- Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter looks at changes and developments in the subject of visual perception. The dominance of behaviourism in psychology in the 1950s started to fade as new ideas emerged from research into ... More

## Reclaiming Technology: From Information Theory to Statistical Form

*Jennifer Iverson*

### in Electronic Inspirations: Technologies of the Cold War Musical Avant-Garde

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- January 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780190868192
- eISBN:
- 9780190929138
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780190868192.003.0005
- Subject:
- Music, History, Western

In the transition from World War II to the Cold War, military innovations were domesticated and repurposed for civilian, scientific, and cultural advancement. Information theory is one such ... More

## Psychology in the 1950s: a personal view

*Alan Baddeley*

### in Inside Psychology: A science over 50 years

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- March 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199228768
- eISBN:
- 9780191696336
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228768.003.0003
- Subject:
- Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter is concerned with developments in psychology in the 1950s. It suggests that this period witnessed the demise of Gestalt psychology, a distinctive approach to experimental psychology, ... More

## Find balance, as in coding theory

*Susan D'Agostino*

### in How to Free Your Inner Mathematician: Notes on Mathematics and Life

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- April 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198843597
- eISBN:
- 9780191879388
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198843597.003.0035
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Educational Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

“Find balance, as in coding theory” explains how mathematicians construct codes to transmit messages as accurately and efficiently as possible. Since “noise” may corrupt messages during transmission, ... More

## Meaning, Information, and Enclosure

*Paul Kockelman*

### in The Art of Interpretation in the Age of Computation

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- July 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780190636531
- eISBN:
- 9780190636562
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190636531.003.0004
- Subject:
- Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter argues that information is a species of meaning that has been radically enclosed, such that the values in question seem to have become radically portable. They are not so much ... More

## Information: A Brief Modern History

*David Sarokin and Jay Schulkin*

### in Missed Information: Better Information for Building a Wealthier, More Sustainable Future

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- May 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780262034920
- eISBN:
- 9780262336253
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- The MIT Press
- DOI:
- 10.7551/mitpress/9780262034920.003.0002
- Subject:
- Information Science, Library Science

“Information” has taken on new meanings and new significance in the Information Age. The subject has moved beyond the traditional realm of engineering. Encyclopedias and text books that formerly ... More

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