DECLARATIONS, evidence. The statements made by the parties to a transaction,
in relation to the same.
2. These declarations when proved are received in evidence, for the purpose of illustrating the peculiar character and circumstances of the transaction. Declarations are admitted to be proved in a variety of cases.
3.-1. In cases of rape, the fact that the woman made declarations in relation to it, soon after the assault took place, is evidence; but the particulars of what she said cannot be heard. 2 Stark; N. P. C. 242; S. C. 3 E. C. L. R. 344. But it is to be observed that these declarations can be used only to corroborate her testimony, and cannot be received as independent evidence; where, therefore, the prosecutrix, died, these declarations could not be received. 9 C. & P. 420; S. C. 38 Eng. C. L. R. 173; 9 C. & P. 471; S. C. 38 E. C. L. It. 188.
4.-2. When more than one person is concerned in the commission of a crime, as in cases of riots, conspiracies, and the like, the declarations of either of the parties, made while acting in the common design, are evidence against the whole; but the declarations of one of the rioters or conspirators, made after the accomplishment of their object, and when they no longer acted together, are evidence only against the party making them. 2 Stark. Ev. 235 2 Russ. on Cr. 572 Rosc. Cr. Ev. 324; 1 Breese, Rep. 269.
5. In. civil cases the declarations of an agent, made while acting for his principal, are admitted in evidence as explanatory of his acts; but his confessions after he has ceased to, act, are not evidence. 4. S. R. 321.
6.-3. To prove a pedigree, the declarations of a deceased member of the family are admissible. Vide Hearsay, and the cases there cited.
7.-4. The dying declarations of a man who has received a mortal injury, as to the fact itself, and the party by whom it was committed, are good evidence; but the party making them must be under a full consciousness of approaching death. The declarations of a boy between ten and eleven years of age, made under a consciousness of approaching death, were received in evidence on the trial of a person for killing him, as being declarations in articulo mortis. 9 C. & P. 395; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 168. Evidence of such declarations is admissible only when the death of the deceased is the subject of the charge, and the circumstances of the death the subject of the dying declarations. 2 B. & C. 605; S. C. 9 E. C. L. R. 196; 2 B. & C. 608; S. C. 9 E. C. L. R. 198; 1 John. Rep. 159; 15 John. R. 286; 7 John. R. 95 But see contra, 2 Car. Law Repos. 102. Vide Death bed, or Dying declarations. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3071.