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Language

Lan´guage
n.1.
1.Any means of conveying or communicating ideas;
2.The expression of ideas by writing, or any other instrumentality.
3.The forms of speech, or the methods of expressing ideas, peculiar to a particular nation.
4.The characteristic mode of arranging words, peculiar to an individual speaker or writer; manner of expression; style.
Others for language all their care express.
- Pope.
5.The inarticulate sounds by which animals inferior to man express their feelings or their wants.
6.The suggestion, by objects, actions, or conditions, of ideas associated therewith; as, the language of flowers.
There was . . . language in their very gesture.
- Shak.
7.The vocabulary and phraseology belonging to an art or department of knowledge; as, medical language; the language of chemistry or theology.
8.A race, as distinguished by its speech.
9.Any system of symbols created for the purpose of communicating ideas, emotions, commands, etc., between sentient agents.
10.(computers) Any set of symbols and the rules for combining them which are used to specify to a computer the actions that it is to take; also referred to as a computer lanugage or programming language; as, JAVA is a new and flexible high-level language which has achieved popularity very rapidly.
Language master
a teacher of languages.
v. t.1.To communicate by language; to express in language.
[imp. & p. p. Languaged ; p. pr. & vb. n. Languaging .]
Noun1.Languagelanguage - a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols; "he taught foreign languages"; "the language introduced is standard throughout the text"; "the speed with which a program can be executed depends on the language in which it is written"
2.language - (language) communication by word of mouth; "his speech was garbled"; "he uttered harsh language"; "he recorded the spoken language of the streets"
3.language - a system of words used in a particular discipline; "legal terminology"; "the language of sociology"
4.language - the cognitive processes involved in producing and understanding linguistic communication; "he didn't have the language to express his feelings"
5.language - the mental faculty or power of vocal communication; "language sets homo sapiens apart from all other animals"
Synonyms: speech
6.language - the text of a popular song or musical-comedy number; "his compositions always started with the lyrics"; "he wrote both words and music"; "the song uses colloquial language"
Synonyms: lyric, words

LANGUAGE. The faculty which men possess of communicating their perceptions and ideas to one another by means of articulate sounds. This is the definition of spoken language; but ideas and perceptions may be communicated without sound by writing, and this is called written language. By conventional usage certain sounds have a definite meaning in one country or in certain countries, and this is called the language of such country or countries, as the Greek, the Latin, the French or the English language. The law, too, has a peculiar language. Vide Eunom. Dial. 2; Technical.
     2. On the subjugation of England by William the Conqueror, the French Norman language was substituted in all law proceedings for the ancient Saxon. This, according to Blackstone, vol. iii. p. 317, was the language of the records, writs and pleadings, until the time of Edward III. Mr. Stephen thinks Blackstone has fallen into an error, and says the record was, from the earliest period to which that document can be traced, in the Latin language. Plead. Appx. note 14. By the statute 36 Ed. III. st. 1, c. 15, it was enacted that for the future all pleas should be pleaded, shown, defended, answered, debated and judged in the English tongue; but be entered and enrolled in Latin. The Norman or law French, however, being more familiar as applied to the law, than any other language, the lawyers continued to employ it in making their notes of the trial of cases, which they afterwards published, in that barbarous dialect, under the name of Reports. After the enactment of this statute, on the introduction of paper pleadings, they followed in the language, as well as in other respects, the style of the records, which were drawn up in Latin. This technical language continued in use till the time of Cromwell, when by a statute the records were directed to be in English; but this act was repealed at the restoration, by Charles II., the lawyers finding it difficult to express themselves as well and as concisely in the vernacular as in the Latin tongue; and the language of the law continued as before till about the year 1730, when the statute of 4 Geo. II. c. 26, was passed. It provided that both the pleadings and the records should thenceforward be framed in English. The ancient terms and expressions which had been so long known in French and Latin were now literally translated into English. The translation of such terms and phrases were found to be exceedingly ridiculous. Such terms as nisi prius, habeas corpus, fieri facias, mandamus, and the like, are not capable of an English dress with any degree of seriousness. They are equally absurd in the manner they are employed in Latin, but use and the fact that they are in a foreign language has made the absurdity less apparent.
     3. By statute of 6 Geo. II., c. 14, passed two years after the last mentioned statute, the use of technical words was allowed to continue in the usual language, which defeated almost every beneficial purpose of the former statute. In changing from one language to another, many words and technical expressions were retained in the new, which belonged to the more ancient language, and not seldom they partook of both; this, to the unlearned student, has given an air of confusion, and disfigured the language of the law. It has rendered essential also the study of the Latin and French languages. This perhaps is not to be regretted, as they are the keys which open to the ardent student vast stores of knowledge. In the United States, the records, pleadings, and all law proceedings are in the English language, except certain technical terms which retain their ancient French and Latin dress.
     4. Agreements, contracts, wills and other instruments, may be made in any language, and will be enforced. Bac. Ab. Wills, D 1. And a slander spoken in a foreign language, if understood by those present, or a libel published in such language, will be punished as if spoken or written in the English language. Bac. Ab. Slander, D 3; 1 Roll. Ab. 74; 6 T. R. 163. For the construction of language, see articles Construction; Interpretation; and Jacob's Intr. to the Com. Law Max. 46.
     5. Among diplomatists, the French language is the one commonly used. At an early period the Latin was the diplomatic language in use in Europe. Towards the end of the fifteenth century that of Spain gained the ascendancy, in consequence of the great influence which that country then exercised in Europe. The French, since the age of Louis XIV. has become the almost universal diplomatic idiom of the civilized world, though some states use their national language in treaties and diplomatic correspondence. It is usual in these cases to annex to the papers transmitted, a translation in the language of the opposite party; wherever it is understood this comity will be reciprocated. This is the usage of the Germanic confederation, of Spain, and of the Italian courts. When nations using a common language, as the United States and Great Britain, treat with each other, such language is used in their diplomatic intercourse.
     Vide, generally, 3 Bl. Com. 323; 1 Chit., Cr. Law, *415; 2 Rey, Institutions Judiciaires de l'Angleterre, 211, 212.

1.(language, programming)language - programming language.
2.(human language)language - natural language.
Abnaki, Afghan, Afghani, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian, Algonquin, Amharic, Anatolian, Anatolic, Andaman, Annamese, Anzanite, Apache, Arabic, Aramaic, Araucanian, Arawak, Arawakan, Armenian, Arulo, Aryan, Assamese, Athapaskan, Austral, Austronesian, Avestan, Aymara, Aztec, Balinese, Baluchi, Bashkir, Basque, Batak, Bellacoola, Bengali, Berber, Bhili, Bihari, Bikol, Bini, Blackfoot, Blaia Zimondal, Brahui, Brythonic, Buginese, Burmese, Burushaski, Buryat, Bushman, Byelorussian, Cantonese, Carolinian, Caspian, Castilian, Catalan, Caucasian, Chad, Cham, Cheremis, Cherokee, Chibcha, Chibchan, Chin, Chinese, Chinookan, Chuvash, Coptic, Cornish, Cuman, Czech, Dafla, Dalmatian, Danish, Dinka, Dravidian, Dutch, Dyak, Edo, Efatese, Egyptian, Elamitic, English, Eskimo, Eskimo-Aleut, Esperantido, Esperanto, Estonian, Ethiopic, Europan, Euskarian, Ewe, Faeroese, Faliscan, Fijian, Finnic, Finnish, Flemish, Fox, French, Frisian, Fula, Fulani, Gadaba, Gaelic, Galcha, Galla, Garo, Gaulish, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic, Gold, Goldi, Gondi, Gothic, Greek, Guanche, Guarani, Gur, Gypsy, Haida, Haitian Creole, Hamito-Semitic, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Hellenic, Hindustani, Hittite, Ho, Hokaltecan, Hokan-Siouan, Hopi, Hottentot, Iban, Ibanag, Ibo, Icelandic, Idiom Neutral, Igorot, Illyrian, Indic, Indo-Aryan, Indo-Chinese, Indo-European, Indo-Hittite, Interlingua, Irish, Iroquoian, Italian, Italic, Ivatan, Kachin, Kafiri, Kalmuck, Kamasin, Kamchadal, Kanarese, Kara-Kalpak, Karamojong, Karankawa, Karelian, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kechumaran, Keres, Ket, Khamti, Kharia, Khasi, Khmer, Khoisan, Khondi, Khosa, Khowar, Kickapoo, Kiowa Apache, Kirghiz, Kiriwina, Kitunahan, Kodagu, Kohistani, Koiari, Kolami, Koluschan, Komi, Konkani, Korean, Korwa, Koryak, Kui, Kuki, Kuki-Chin, Kumyk, Kunama, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutchin, Kutenai, Kwa, Ladino, Lahnda, Lampong, Lamut, Lao, Lapp, Latin, Latinesce, Latvian, Lettish, Libyan, Ligurian, Limbu, Lingualumina, Lingvo Kosmopolita, Lithuanian, Livonian, Low German, Luorawetlan, Lusatian, Luwian, Lycian, Lydian, Macedonian, Madurese, Magyar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Malayo-Polynesian, Maltese, Manchu, Mandarin, Mande, Mandingo, Mangarevan, Manobo, Manx, Maori, Marathi, Maya, Mayan, Meithei, Mende, Messapian, Micronesian, Middle English, Middle Greek, Middle High German, Middle Persian, Mishmi, Mishongnovi, Misima, Miskito, Mon, Monario, Mongolian, Mongolic, Mordvin, Mordvinian, Moro, Mru, Munda, Muong, Mura, Muran, Murmi, Muskogean, Muskogee, Na-dene, Naga, Nahuatlan, Nepali, Newari, Ngala, Ngbaka, Niasese, Nicobarese, Niuean, Nogai, Nootka, Norwegian, Nov-Esperanto, Nov-Latin, Novial, Occidental, Optez, Oraon, Oriya, Oscan, Osco-Umbrian, Osmanli, Ossetic, Ostyak, Otomanguean, Pahlavi, Palaic, Palau, Palaung, Paleo-Asiatic, Pali, Pampango, Pangasinan, Papuan, Pashto, Pasigraphy, Paya, Penutian, Permian, Persian, Phrygian, Piman, Plattdeutsch, Polabian, Polish, Polynesian, Portuguese, Prakrit, Punic, Punjabi, Quechua, Quechuan, Ritwan, Ro, Romaic, Romanal, Romance, Romanic, Romansh, Romany, Russian, Ruthenian, Sabellian, Saharan, Sakai, Salish, Samoan, Samoyed, Samoyedic, Sanskrit, Sardinian, Sasak, Scandinavian, Selung, Semitic, Serbo-Croatian, Shan, Shilha, Shluh, Shoshonean, Siamese, Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan, Siouan, Skittagetan, Slavic, Slavonic, Slovak, Slovene, Slovenian, Sogdian, Sorbian, Soyot, Spanish, Sudanic, Sumerian, Susian, Swahili, Swedish, Syriac, Syryenian, Tagalog, Tagula, Tahitian, Takelma, Takilman, Tamashek, Tamaulipec, Tanoan, Taracahitian, Tarascan, Tavgi, Taw-Sug, Thraco-Phrygian, Tibeto-Burman, Tigre, Tipura, Tocharian, Toda, Tsimshian, Tuareg, Tulu, Tungus, Tungusic, Tupi-Guaranian, Turanian, Turkic, Turkish, Turko-Tartar, Turkoman, Ugric, Uighur, Umbrian, Ural-Altaic, Uralian, Urdu, Uto-Aztecan, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Visayan, Vote, Votyak, Wa, Welsh, White Russian, Xhosa, Yakut, Yeniseian, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yukaghir, Yukian, Yurak, Zenaga, Zulu, agglutinative, analytic, argot, choice of words, communication, composition, dictionary, expression, formulation, grammar, incorporative, inflectional, interaction, intercourse, isolating, language, lexicon, locution, monosyllabic, palaver, parlance, patois, phrase, phrasing, polysynthetic, polytonic, rhetoric, slang, style, synthetic, talk, terminology, usage, use of words, usus loquendi, verbiage, vocabulary, wordage, wording
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