|1.||(Law) A public officer who is invested with authority to hear and determine litigated causes, and to administer justice between parties in courts held for that purpose.|
|2.||One who has skill, knowledge, or experience, sufficient to decide on the merits of a question, or on the quality or value of anything; one who discerns properties or relations with skill and readiness; a connoisseur; an expert; a critic.|
|3.||A person appointed to decide in a trial of skill, speed, etc., between two or more parties; an umpire; as, a judge in a horse race.|
|4.||(Jewish Hist.) One of the supreme magistrates, with both civil and military powers, who governed Israel for more than four hundred years.|
|5.||The title of the seventh book of the Old Testament; the Book of Judges.|
|1.||To hear and determine, as in causes on trial; to decide as a judge; to give judgment; to pass sentence.|
|2.||To assume the right to pass judgment on another; to sit in judgment or commendation; to criticise or pass adverse judgment upon others. See Judge, v. t., 3.|
|3.||To compare facts or ideas, and perceive their relations and attributes, and thus distinguish truth from falsehood; to determine; to discern; to distinguish; to form an opinion about.|
She is wise if I can judge of her.
|v. t.||1.||To hear and determine by authority, as a case before a court, or a controversy between two parties.|
|2.||To examine and pass sentence on; to try; to doom.|
|3.||To arrogate judicial authority over; to sit in judgment upon; to be censorious toward.|
Judge not, that ye be not judged.
|4.||To determine upon or deliberation; to esteem; to think; to reckon.|
|5.||To exercise the functions of a magistrate over; to govern.|
Make us a king to judge us.
|Noun||1.||judge - a public official authorized to decide questions bought before a court of justice|
|2.||judge - an authority who is able to estimate worth or quality|
|Verb||1.||judge - determine the result of (a competition)|
|2.||judge - form an opinion of or pass judgment on; "I cannot judge some works of modern art"|
|3.||judge - judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time); "I estimate this chicken to weigh three pounds"|
|4.||judge - pronounce judgment on; "They labeled him unfit to work here"|
|5.||judge - put on trial or hear a case and sit as the judge at the trial of; "The football star was tried for the murder of his wife"; "The judge tried both father and son in separate trials"|
JUDGE. A public officer, lawfully appointed to decide litigated questions
according to law. This, in its most extensive sense, includes all officers
who are appointed to decide such questions, and not only judges properly so
called, but also justices of the peace, and jurors, who are judges of the
facts in issue. See 4 Dall. 229; 3 Yeates, IR. 300. In a more limited sense,
the term judge signifies an officer who is so named in his commission, and
who presides in some court.
2. Judges are appointed or elected, in a variety of ways, in the United States they are appointed by the president, by and with the consent of the senate; in some of the states they are appointed by the governor, the governor and senate, or by the legislature. In the United States, and some of the states, they hold their offices during good behaviour; in others, as in New York, during, good behaviour, or until they shall attain a certain age and in others for a limited term of years.
3. Impartiality is the first duty of a judge; before he gives an opinion, or sits in judgment in a cause, he ought to be certain that he has no bias for or against either of the parties; and if he has any (the slightest) interest in the cause, he is disqualified from sitting as judge; aliquis non debet esse judex in propria causa; 8 Co. 118; 21 Pick. Rep. 101; 5 Mass. 92; 13 Mass. 340; 6 Pick. R. 109; 14 S. & R. 157-8; and when he is aware of such interest, he ought himself to refuse to sit on the case. It seems it is discretionary with him whether he will sit in a cause in which he has been of counsel. 2 Marsh. 517; Coxe, 164; see 2 Binn. 454. But the delicacy which characterizes the judges in this country, generally, forbids their sitting in such a cause.
4. He must not only be impartial, but he must follow and enforce the law, whether good or bad. He is bound to declare what the law is, and not to make it; he is not an arbitrator, but an interpreter of the law. It is his duty to be patient in the investigation of the case, careful in considering it, and firm in his judgment. He ought, according to Cicero, "never to lose sight that he is a man, and that he cannot exceed the power given him by his commission; that not only power, but public confidence has been given to him; that he ought always seriously to attend not to his wishes but to the requisitions of law, of justice and religion." Cic. pro. Cluentius. A curious case of judicial casuistry is stated by Aulus Gellius Att. Noct. lib: 14, cap. 2, which may be interesting to the reader.
5. While acting within the bounds of his jurisdiction, the judge is hot responsible for any error of judgment, nor mistake he may commit as a judge. Co. Litt. 294; 2 Inst. 422; 2 Dall. R. 160; 1 Yeates, R. 443; N. & M'C. 168; 1 Day, R. 315; 1 Root, R. 211; 3 Caines, R. 170; 5 John. R. 282; 9 John. R. 395; 11 John. R. 150; 3 Marsh. R. 76; 1 South. R. 74; 1 N. H. Rep. 374; 2 Bay, 1, 69; 8 Wend. 468; 3 Marsh. R. 76,. When he acts corruptly, he may be impeached. 5 John. R. 282; 8 Cowen, R. 178; 4 Dall. R. 225.
6. A judge is not competent as a witness in a cause trying before him, for this, among other reasons, that he can hardly be deemed capable of impartially deciding on the admissibility of his own testimony, or of weighing. it against that of another. Martin's R. N. S. 312. Vide, Com. Dig. Courts, B 4, C 2, E 1, P 16 justices, 1 1, 2, and 3; 14 Vin. Ab. 573; Bac. Ab. Courts, &c., B; 1 Kent, Com. 291; Ayl. Parerg. 309; Story, Const. Index, h.t. See U. S. Dig. Courts, I, where will be found an abstract of various decisions relating to the appointment and powers of judges in different states. Vide Equality; Incompetency.;