|n.||1.||A beak, as of a bird, or sometimes of a turtle or other animal.|
|v. i.||1.||To strike; to peck. |
|2.||To join bills, as doves; to caress in fondness.|
|n.||1.||The bell, or boom, of the bittern|
|1.||A cutting instrument, with hook-shaped point, and fitted with a handle; - used in pruning, etc.; a billhook. When short, called a hand bill, when long, a hedge bill.|
|2.||A weapon of infantry, in the 14th and 15th centuries. A common form of bill consisted of a broad, heavy, double-edged, hook-shaped blade, having a short pike at the back and another at the top, and attached to the end of a long staff.|
|3.||One who wields a bill; a billman.|
|4.||A pickax, or mattock.|
|5.||(Naut.) The extremity of the arm of an anchor; the point of or beyond the fluke.|
|v. t.||1.||To work upon ( as to dig, hoe, hack, or chop anything) with a bill.|
|1.||(Law) A declaration made in writing, stating some wrong the complainant has suffered from the defendant, or a fault committed by some person against a law.|
|2.||A writing binding the signer or signers to pay a certain sum at a future day or on demand, with or without interest, as may be stated in the document.|
|3.||A form or draft of a law, presented to a legislature for enactment; a proposed or projected law.|
|4.||A paper, written or printed, and posted up or given away, to advertise something, as a lecture, a play, or the sale of goods; a placard; a poster; a handbill.|
|5.||An account of goods sold, services rendered, or work done, with the price or charge; a statement of a creditor's claim, in gross or by items; as, a grocer's bill.|
|6.||Any paper, containing a statement of particulars; as, a bill of charges or expenditures; a weekly bill of mortality; a bill of fare, etc.|
|Bill of exchange|
| (Com.) a written order or request from one person or house to another, desiring the latter to pay to some person designated a certain sum of money therein generally is, and, to be negotiable, must be, made payable to order or to bearer. So also the order generally expresses a specified time of payment, and that it is drawn for value. The person who draws the bill is called the drawer, the person on whom it is drawn is, before acceptance, called the drawee, - after acceptance, the acceptor; the person to whom the money is directed to be paid is called the payee. The person making the order may himself be the payee. The bill itself is frequently called a draft. See Exchange.|
|v. t.||1.||To advertise by a bill or public notice.|
|2.||To charge or enter in a bill; as, to bill goods.|
|Noun||1.||bill - a statute in draft before it becomes law; "they held a public hearing on the bill"|
|2.||bill - an itemized statement of money owed for goods shipped or services rendered; "he paid his bill and left"; "send me an account of what I owe"|
|3.||bill - a piece of paper money (especially one issued by a central bank); "he peeled off five one-thousand-zloty notes"|
|4.||bill - the entertainment offered at a public presentation|
|5.||bill - a list of particulars (as a playbill or bill of fare)|
|6.||bill - an advertisement (usually printed on a page or in a leaflet) intended for wide distribution; "he mailed the circular to all subscribers"|
|7.||bill - horny projecting mouth of a bird|
|8.||bill - a sign posted in a public place as an advertisement; "a poster advertised the coming attractions"|
|9.||bill - a long-handled saw with a curved blade; "he used a bill to prune branches off of the tree"|
|10.||bill - a brim that projects to the front to shade the eyes; "he pulled down the bill of his cap and trudged ahead"|
|Verb||1.||bill - demand payment; "Will I get charged for this service?"; "We were billed for 4 nights in the hotel, although we stayed only 3 nights"|
|2.||bill - advertise especially by posters or placards; "He was billed as the greatest tenor since Caruso"|
|3.||bill - publicize or announce by placards|
BILL, legislation. An instrument drawn or presented by a member or committee
to a legislative body for its approbation and enactment. After it has gone
through both houses and received the constitutional sanction of the chief
magistrate, where such approbation is requisite, it becomes a law. See
Meigs, R. 237.
BILL, chancery practice. A complaint in writing addressed to the chancellor,
containing the names of the parties to the suit, both complainant and
defendant, a statement of the facts on which the complainant relies, and the
allegations which he makes, with an averment that the acts complained of are
contrary to equity , and a prayer for relief and proper process. Its office
in a chancery suit, is the same as a declaration in an action at law, a
libel in a court of admiralty or an allegation in, the spiritual courts.
2. A bill usually consists of nine parts. 1. The address, which must be
to the chancellor, court or judge acting as such. 2. The second part
consists of the names of the plaintiffs and their descriptions; but the
description of the parties in this part of the bill does not, it seems,
constitute a sufficient averment, so as to put that fact in issue. 2. Ves. &
Bea. 327. 3. The third part is called the premises or stating part of the
bill, and contains the plaintiff's case. 4. In the fourth place is a general
charge of confederacy. 5. The fifth part consists of allegations of the
defendant's pretences, and charges in evidence of them. 6. The sixth part
contains the clause of jurisdiction and in averment that the acts complained
of are contrary to equity. 7. The seventh part consists of a prayer that the
parties answer the premises, which is usually termed the interrogatory part.
8. The prayer for relief sought forms the eighth part. And, 9. The ninth
part is a prayer for process. 2 Mad. Ch. 166; Blake's Ch. P. 35; 1 Mitf. Pl.
41. The facts contained in the bill, as far as known to the complainant,
must, in some cases, be sworn to be true; and such as are not known to him,
he must swear he believes to be true; and it must be signed by counsel; 2
Madd. Ch. Pr. 167; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 26 to 47; and for cases requiring an
affidavit, see, 3 Brow. Chan. Cas. 12, 24, 463; Bunb. 35; 2 Brow. 11 1 Fow.
Proc. 256 Mitf. Pl. 51; 2 P. Wms. 451; 3 Id. 77; 1 Atk. 450; 3 Id. 17, 132;
3 Atk. 132 Preced. in Ch. 332 Barton's Equity, 48 n. 1, 53 n. 1, 56 n. 1 2
Brow. Ch. Cas. 281, 319; 4 Id. 480
3. Bills may be divided into three classes, namely: 1. Original bills.
2. Bills not original. 3. Bills in the nature of original bills.
4. - 1. An original bill is one which prays the decree of the court,
touching some right claimed by the person exhibiting the bill, in opposition
to some right claimed by the person against whom the bill is exhibited.
Hinde, 19; Coop. Eq. Pl. 43. Original bills always relate to some matter not
before litigated in the court by the same persons, and standing in the same
interests. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 34; Story, Eq. Pl., Sec. 16. They may be
divided into those which pray relief, and those which do not pray relief.
5. - 1st. Original bills praying relief are of three kinds. First.
Bills Praying the decree or order of the court, touching some right claimed
by the party exhibiting the bill, in opposition to some right, real or
supposed, claimed by the party against whom the bill is exhibited, or
touching some wrong done in violation of the plaintiff's right. Mitf. Eq.
6. - Secondly. A bill of interpleader, is one in which the person
exhibiting it claims no right in opposition to the rights claimed by the
person against whom the bill is exhibited, but prays the decree of the court
touching the rights of those persons, for the safety of the person
exhibiting the bill. Hinde, 20; Coop. Eq. Pl. 43; Mitf. Pl. 32. The
Practical Register defines it to be a bill exhibited by a third person, who,
not knowing to whom he ought of right to render a debt or duty, or pay his
rent, fears he may be hurt by some of the claimants, and therefore prays be
may interplead, so that the court may judge to whom the thing belongs, and
he be thereby safe on the payment. Pr. Reg. 78; Harr. Ch. Pr. 45; Edw. Inj.
393; 2 Paige, 199 Id. 570; 6 John. Ch. R. 445.
7. The interpleader has been compared to the intervention (q. v.) of
the civil law. Gilb. For. Rom. 47. But there is a striking difference
between them. The tertius in our interpleader in equity, professes to have
no interest in the subject, and calls upon the parties who allege they have,
to come forward and discuss their claims: the tertius of the civil law, on
the other hand, asserts a right himself in the 'Subject, which two persons
are at the time actually contesting, and insists upon his right to join in
the discussion. A bill of interpleader may be filed, though the party has
not been sued at law, or has been sued by one only of the conflicting
claimants, or though the claim of one of the defendants is actionable at
law, and the other in equity. 6 Johns. Chan. R. 445. The requisites of a
bill of this kind are, 1. It must admit the want of interest in the
plaintiff in the subject matter of dispute. 2. The plaintiff must annex an
affidavit that there is no collusion between him and either of the parties.
3. The bill must contain an offer to bring the money into court, when there
is any due; the want of which is a ground of demurrer, unless the money has
actually been paid into court. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 49; Coop. Eq. Pl. 49; Barton,
Suit in Eq. 47, note 1. 4. The plaintiff should state his own rights, and
thereby negative any interest in the thing in controversy; and also should
state the several claims of the opposite parties; a neglect on this subject
is good cause of demurrer. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 142; 2 Story on Eq. Sec.
821; Story, Eq. Pl. 292. 5. The bill should also show that there are persons
in esse capable of interpleading, and setting up opposite claims. Coop. Eq.
Pl. 46; 1 Mont. Eq. Pl. 234; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 295; Story on Eq. Sec. 821;
1 Ves. 248. 6. The bill should pray that the defendants set forth their
several titles, and interplead, settle, and adjust their demands between
themselves. The bill also generally prays an injunction to restrain the
proceedings of the claimants, or either of them, at law; and, in this case,
the bill should offer to bring the money into court and the court will not
in general act upon this part of the prayer, unless the money be actually
brought into court. 4 Paige's R. 384 6 John. Ch. R. 445.
8. Thirdly. A bill of certiorari, is one praying the writ of certiorari
to remove a cause from an inferior court of equity. Coop. El q. 44. The
requisites of this bill are that it state, 1st. the proceedings in the
inferior court; 2d. the incompetency of such court, by suggesting that the
cause is out of its jurisdiction; or that the witnesses live out of its
jurisdiction; or are not able, by age or infirmity, or the distance of the
place, to follow the suit there or that, for some other cause, justice is
not likely to be done-, 3d. the bill must pray a writ of certiorari, to
certify and remove the record and the cause to the superior court. Wyatt,
Pr. Reg. 82; Harr. Ch. Pr. 49; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 298. This bill is seldom
used in the United States.
9. - 2d. Original bills not praying relief are of two kinds. First,.
Bills to secure evidence, which are bills to perpetuate the testimony of
witnesses or bills to examine witnesses de bene esse. These will be
10. - 1. A bill to perpetuate the testimony of witnesses, is one which
prays leave to examine them, and states that the witnesses are old, infirm,
or sick, or going beyond the jurisdiction of the court, whereby the party is
in danger of losing the benefit of their testimony. Hinde, 20. It does not
pray for relief. Coop. Eq. Pl. 44.
11. In order to maintain such a bill, it is requisite to state on its
face all the material facts to support the jurisdiction. It must state, 1.
the subject-matter touching which the plaintiff is desirous of giving
evidence. Rep. Temp. Finch, 391; 4 Madd. R. 8, 10. 2. It must show that the
plaintiff has some interest in the subject-matter, which may be endangered
if the testimony in support of it be lost; and a mere expectancy, however
strong, is not sufficient. 6 Ves. 260 1 Vern. 105; 15 Ves. 136; Mitf. Eq.
Pl. by Jeremy, 51 Coop. Eq. Pl., 52. 3. It must state that the defendant
has, or pretends to have, or that he claims an interest to contest the title
of the plaintiff in the subject-matter of the proposed testimony. Coop. Pl.
56; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 302. 4. It must exhibit some ground of necessity for
perpetuating the evidence. Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 303 Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy,
52, 148 and note y; Coop. Eq. Pl. 53. 5. The right of which the bill is
brought to perpetuate the evidence or testimony, should be described with
reasonable certainty in the bill, so as to point the proper interrogations
on both sides to the true merits of the controversy. 1 Vern. 312; Coop. Eq.
Pl. 56. 6. It should pray leave to examine the witnesses touching the matter
stated, to the end that their testimony maybe preserved and perpetuated.
52. A bill to perpetuate testimony differs from a bill to take testimony
de bene esse, in this, that the latter is sustainable only when there is a
suit already depending, while the former can be maintained only when no
present suit can be brought at law by the party seeking the aid of a court
to try his right. Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 307. The canonists had a similar rule.
According to the canon law, witnesses could be examined before any action
was commenced, for fear that their evidence might be lost. x, cap. 5
Boehmer, n. 5 8 Toull. n. 23.
12. - 2. Bill to take testimony de bene esse. This bill, the name of
which is sufficiently descriptive of its object, is frequently confounded
with a bill to perpetuate testimony; but although it bears a close analogy
to it, ,it is very different. Bills to perpetuate testimony can be
maintained only, when no present suit can be maintained at law by the party
seeking the aid of the court to try his right; whereas bills to take
testimony de bene esse, are sustainable only in aid of a suit already
depending. 1 Sim. & Stu. 83. The latter may be brought by a person who is in
possession, or out of possession; and whether he be plaintiff or defendant
in the action at law. Story, Eq Pl. Sec. 307 and 303, note; Story on Eq.
1813, note 3. In many respects the rules which regulate the framing of bills
to perpetuate testimony, are applicable to bills to take testimony ae bene
13. - Secondly. A bill of discovery, emphatically so called, is one
which prays for the discovery of facts resting within the knowledge of the
person against whom the bill is exhibited, or of deeds, writings, or other
things in his custody or power. Hinde, 20; Blake's Ch. Pr. 37. Every bill,
except the bill of certiorari, may in truth, be considered a bill of
discovery, for every bill seeks a disclosure of circumstances relative to
the plaintiff's case; but that usually and emphatically distinguished by
this appellation is a bill for the discovery of facts, resting in the
knowledge of the defendant, or of deeds or writings, or other things in his
custody or power, and seeking no relief in consequence of the discovery.
14. This bill is commonly used in aid of the jurisdiction of some other
court as to enable the plaintiff to prosecute or defend an action at law.
Mitf. Pl. 52. "The plaintiff, in this species of bill, must be entitled to
the discovery he seeks, and shall only have a discovery of what is necessary
for his own title, as of deeds he claims under, and not to pry into that of
the defendant. 2 Ves. 445. See Blake's Ch. Pr. 45 Mitf. Pl. 52 Coop. Eq. Pl.
58 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 196 Hare on Disc. passim Wagr. on Disc. passim.
15. The action ad exhibendum, in the Roman law, was not unlike a bill of
discovery. Its object was to force the party against whom it was instituted,
to exhibit a thing or a title in his power. It was always preparatory to
another, which was always a real action in the sense of the word in the
Roman law. See Action ad exhibendum; Merlin, Questions de Droit, tome i. 84.
16. - II . Bills not original. These are either in addition to, or a
continuance of an original bill, or both. Mitf. c. 1, s . 2; Story, Eq. Pl.
Sec. 388; .4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4100.
17. - 1st. Of the first class are, 1. A supplemental bill. This bill is
occasioned by some defect in a suit already instituted, whereby the parties
cannot obtain complete justice, to which otherwise the case by their bill
would have entitled them. It is used for the purpose of supplying some
irregularity discovered in the formation of the original bill, or some of
the proceedings there upon; or some defect in a suit, arising from events
happening since the points in the original were at issue, which give an
interest to20persons not parties to the suit. Blake's Ch. Pr. 50. See 3
Johns. Ch. R. 423.
18. It is proper to consider more minutely 1. in what cases such a bill
may be filed; 2. its particular requisites.
19.- 1. A supplemental bill may be filed, 1st. whenever the imperfection
in the original bill arises from the omission of some material fact, which
existed before the filing of the bill, but the time has passed in which it
can be introduced into the bill by amendment,, Mitf. Eq. Pl. 55, 61, 325 but
leave of court must be obtained, before a bill which seeks to change the
original structure of the bill, and to introduce a new and different case,
can be filed. 2d. When a party necessary to the proceedings has been
omitted, and cannot be admitted by an amendment. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 61 6 Madd. R.
369; 4 John. Ch. R. 605. 3d. When, after the court has decided upon the suit
as framed, it appears necessary to bring some other matter before the court
to obtain the full effect of the decision; or before a decision has been
obtained, but after the parties are at issue upon the points in the original
bill, and witnesses have been examined, (in which case, an amendment is not
in general permitted,) some other point appears necessary to be made, or
some additional discovery is found requisite. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 55;
Coop Eq. Pl. 73; 3 Atk. R. 110; 12 Paige, R. 200. 4th. When new events or
new matters have occurred since the filing of the bill; Coop. Eq. Pl. 74;
these events or matters, however, are confined to such as refer to and
support the rights and interests already mentioned in the bill. Story, Eq.
Pl. Sec. 336.
20. - 2. The supplemental bill must state the original bill, and the
proceedings thereon and when it is occasioned by an event which has occurred
subsequently to the original bill, it must state that event, and the
consequent alteration with regard to the parties. In general, the
supplemental bill must pray that all defendants appear and answer the
charges it contains. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 75 Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 343.
21. - 2. A bill of revivor, which is a continuance of the original bill,
when by death some party to it has become incapable of prosecuting or
defending a suit, or a female plaintiff has by marriage incapacitated
herself from suing alone. Mitf. Pl. 33, 70; 2 Madd. Ch. Pr. 526. See 3
Johns. Ch. R. 60: Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 354, et. seq.
22. - 3. A bill of revivor and supplement. This is a compound of a
supple-mental bill and bill of revivor, and not only continues the suit,
which has abated by the death of the plaintiff, or the like, but supplies
any defects in the original bill, arising from subsequent events, so as to
entitle the party to relief on the whole merits of his case. 5 Johns. Ch R.
334; Mitf. Pl. 32, 74.
23. - 2d. Among the second class may be placed, 1. A cross bill. This is
one which is brought by a defendant in a suit against the plaintiff,
respecting the matter in question in that bill. Coop. Eq. Pl. 85 Mitf. Pl.
24. A bill of this kind is usually brought to obtain, either a necessary
discovery, or full relief to all the parties. It frequently happens, and
particularly if any questions arises between two defendants to a bill, that
the court cannot make a complete decree without a cross bill, or cross bills
to bring every matter in dispute completely before the court, litigated by
the proper parties, and upon proper proofs. In this case it becomes
necessary for some one of the defendants to the original bill to file a bill
against the plaintiff and other defendants in that bill, or some of them,
and bring the litigated point properly before the court.
25. A cross bill should state the original bill, and the proceedings
thereon, and the rights of the party exhibiting the bill which are necessary
to be made the subject of a cross litigation, or the grounds on which he
resists the claims of the plaintiff in the original bill, if that is the
object of the new bill.
26. A cross bill may be filed to answer the purpose of a plea puis
darrein continuance at the common law. For example, where, pending a suit,
and after replication and issue joined, the defendant having obtained a
release and attempted to prove it viva voce at the bearing, it was
determined that the release not being in issue in the cause, the court could
not try the facts, or direct a trial at law for that purpose, and that a new
bill must be filed to put the release in issue. Mitf. Pl. 75, 76 Coop. Eq.
Pl. 85; 1 Harr. Ch. Pr. 135.
27. A cross bill must be brought before publication is passed on the
first bill, 1 Johns. Ch. R. 62, and not after, except the plaintiff in the
cross bill go to the hearing on the depositions already published; because
of the danger of perjury and subornation, if the parties should, after
publication of the former depositions, examine witnesses, de novo, to the
same matter before examined into. 7 Johns. Ch. Rep. 250; Nels. Ch. R. 103.
28. - 2. A bill of review. Bills of review are in the nature of writs of
error. They are brought to have decrees of the court reviewed, altered, or
reversed, and there are two sorts of these bills. The first is brought where
the decree has been signed and enrolled and the second, where the decree has
not been signed and enrolled. 1 Ch. Cas. 54; 3 P. Wms. 371. The first of
these is called, by way of preeminence, a bill of review; while the other is
distinguished by the appellation of a bill in the nature of a bill of
review, or a supplemental bill iii the nature of a bill of review. Coop. Eq.
Pl. 88; 2 Madd. Ch. Pr. 537.
29. A bill of review must be either for error in point of law; 2 Johns.
C. R. 488; Coop. Eq. Pl. 89; or for some new matter of fact, relevant to the
case, discovered since publication passed in the cause; and which could not,
with reasonable diligence, have been discovered before. 2 Johns. C. R. 488;
Coop. Eq. Pl. 94. See 3 Johns. R. 124,
30. - 3. Bill to impeach a decree on the ground of fraud. When a decree
has been obtained by fraud, it may be impeached by original bill, without
leave of court. As the principal point in issue, is the fraud in obtaining
it, it must be established before the propriety of the decree can be
investigated, and the fraud must be distinctly stated in the bill. The
prayer must necessarily be varied according to the nature of the fraud used,
and the extent of its operation in obtaining an improper decision of the
court. When the decree to set aside a fraudulent decree has been obtained,
the court will restore the parties to their former situation, whatever their
rights may be. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 84; Sto. Eq. Pl. Sec. 426.
31. - 4. Bill to suspend a decree. The operation of a decree may be
suspended under special circumstances, or avoided by matter subsequent to
the decrees upon a new bill for that purpose. See 1 Ch. Cas. 3, 61 2 Ch .
Cal 8 Mitf. Eq. Pl. 85 , 86.
32. - 5. Bill to carry a decree into execution. This is one which is
filed when from the neglect of parties, or some other cause, it may become
impossible to carry a decree into execution without the further decree of
the court. Hinde, 68; 1 Harr. Ch. 148.
33. - 6. Bills partaking of the qualities of some one or more of other
bills. These are,
34. First. Bill in the nature of a bill of revivor. A bill in the nature
of a bill of revivor, is one which is filed when the death of a party, whose
interest is not determined by his death, is attended with such a
transmission of his interest, that the title to it, as well as the person
entitled, may be litigated in the court of chancery, as in the case of a
devise of real estate, the suit is not permitted to be continued by bill of
revivor. 1 Ch. Cas. 123; Id. 174; 3 Ch. Rep. 39; Mosely, R. 44. In such
cases an original bill, upon which the title may be litigated, must be
filed, and this bill will have so far the effect of a bill of revivor, that
if the, title of the representative by the act of the deceased party is
established, the same benefit may be had of the proceedings upon the former
bill, as if the suit had been continued by bill of revivor. 1 Vern. 427; 2
Vern. 548 Id. 672; 2 Bro. P. C. 529; 1 Eq. Cas. Ab. 83; Mitf. Pl. 66, 67.
35. Secondly. Bill in the nature. of a supplemental bill. An original
bill in the nature of a supplemental bill, is one filed when the interest of
the plaintiff or defendant, suing or defending, wholly determines, and the
same property becomes vested in another person not claiming under him.
Hinde, 71; Blake's Ch. Pr. 38. The principal difference between this and a
supplemental bill, seems to be, that a supplemental bill is applicable to
such cases only, where the same parties or the same interests remain before
the court; whereas, an original bill in the nature of a supplemental bill,
is properly applicable where new parties, with new interests, arising from
events occurring since the institution of the suit, are brought before the
court. Coop. Eq. Pl. 75; Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 345.
36. Thirdly. Bill in the nature of a bill of review. A bill in the
nature of a bill of review, is one brought by a person not bound by a
decree, praying that the same may be examined and reversed; as where a
decree is made against a person who has no interest at all in the matter in
dispute, or had not an interest sufficient to render the decree against him
binding upon some person claiming after him. Relief may be obtained against
error in the decree, by a bill in the nature of a bill of review. This bill
in its frame resembles a bill of review, except that instead of praying that
the former decree may be reviewed and reversed, it prays that the cause may
be heard with respect to the new matter made the subject of the supplemental
bill, at the same time that it is reheard upon the original bill; and that
the plaintiff may have such relief as the nature of the case made by the
supplemental bill may require. 1 Harr. Ch. P. 145.
37. There are also bills which derive their names from the object which
the complainant has in view. These will be separately considered.
38.- 1. Bill of foreclosure. A bill of foreclosure is one filed by a
mortgagee against the mortgagor, for the purpose of having the estate, sold,
thereby to obtain the sum mortgaged on the premises, with interest and
costs. 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 528. As to the persons who are to be made parties to
a bill of foreclosure, see Story, Eq. Pl. Sec. 199-202.
39. - 2. Bill of information. A bill of information is a bill instituted
in behalf of the state, or those whose rights are the object of its care and
protection. It is commenced by information exhibited in the name of the
attorney-general, and differs from other bills little more than in name. If
the suit immediately concerns the right of the state, the information is
generally exhibited without a relator. If it does not immediately concern
those rights, it is conducted at the instance and under the immediate
direction of, some person whose name is inserted in the information, and is
termed the relator; the officers of the state, in such or the like cases,
are not further concerned than as they are instructed and advised by those
whose rights the state is called upon to protect and establish. Blake's Ch.
Pl. 50; see Harr. Ch. Pr. 151.
40. - 3. Bill to marshal assets. A bill to marshal assets is one filed
in favor of simple contract creditors, and of legatees, devisees, and heirs,
but not in favor of next of kin, to prevent specialty. creditors from
exhausting the personal estate. See Marshaling of Assets.
41. - 4. Bill to marshal securities. A bill to marshal securities is one
which is filed against a party who has two funds by which his debt is
secured, by a person having an interest in only one of those funds. As if A
has two mortgages and B has but one, B has a right to throw A upon the
security which B cannot touch. 2 Atk. 446; see 8 Ves. 388, 395. This last
case contains a luminous exposition in all its bearings. In Pennsylvania,
and perhaps in some other states, the object of this bill is reached by
subrogation, (q. v.) that is, by substituting the creditor, having but one
fund to resort to, to the rights of the other creditor, in respect to the
42. - 5. Bill for a new trial. This is a bill filed in a court of equity
praying for an injunction after judgment at law, when there is any fact,
which renders it against conscience to execute such judgment, and of which
the injured party could not avail himself in a court of law-, or, if he
could, was prevented by fraud or accident, unmixed with any fault or
negligence of himself or his agents. Mitf. Pl. by Jer. 131; 2 Story Eq. Sec.
887. Of late years bills of this description are not countenanced. Id.201
John. Ch. R. 432 6 John. Ch. R. 479.
43. - 6. Bill of peace. A bill of peace is one which is filed when a
person has a right which may be controverted by various persons, at
different times, and by different actions. In such a case the court will
prevent a multiplicity of suits, by directing an issue to determine the
right, and ultimately grant an injunction. 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 166; 1 Harr. Ch.
Pr. 104; Blake's Ch. Pr. 48; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. Sec. 852 to 860; Jeremy on
Eq. Jurisd. 343 2 John. Ch. R. 281; 8 Cranch, R. 426.
44. There is another class of cases in which a bill of peace is now
ordinarily applied; namely, when the plaintiff, after repeated and
satisfactory trials, has established his right at law, and is still in
danger of new attempts to controvert it. In order to quiet the possession of
the plaintiff, and to suppress future litigation, courts of equity, under
such circumstances, will interfere, and grant a perpetual injunction. 3
John. R. 529; 8 Cranch, R. 462; Mit. Pl. by Jeremy, 143; 2 John. Ch. R. 281;
Ed. on Inj. 356.
45. - 7. Bill quia timet. A bill quia timet, is one which is filed when
a person is entitled to property of a personal nature after another's death,
and has reason to apprehend it may be destroyed by the present possessor; or
when he is apprehensive of being subjected to a future inconvenience,
probable or even possible to happen or be occasioned by the neglect,
inadvertence, or culpability of another. Upon a proper case being made out,
the court will, in one case, secure the property for the use of the party
(which is the object of the bill) by compelling the person in possession of
it, to give a proper security against any subsequent disposition or willful
destruction and in the other case, they will quiet the party's apprehension
of future inconvenience, by removing the causes which may lead to it. 1
Harr. Ch. Pr. 107; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 218: Blake's Ch. Pr. 37, 47; 2 Story, Eq.
Jur. Sec. 825 to 851. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
BILL, merc. law. An account containing the items of goods sold, or of work
done by one person against another. It differs from an account stated (q.
v.) in this, that the latter is a bill approved and sanctioned by the
debtor, whereas a bill is made out by the creditor alone.
BILL, contracts. A bill or obligation, (which are the same thing, except
that in English it is commonly called bill, but in Latin obligatio,
obligation,) is a deed whereby the obligor acknowledges himself to owe unto
the obligee a certain sum of money or some other thing, in which, besides
the names of the parties, are to be considered the sum or thing due, the
time, place, and manner of payment or delivery thereof. It may be indented,
or poll, and with or without a penalty. West's Symboleography s. 100, 101,
and the various forms there given.
BILL, SINGLE, contracts. A writing by which one person or more, promises to
another or others, to pay him or them a sum of money at a time therein
specified, without any condition. It is usually under seal; and when so, it
is sometimes, if not commonly, called a bill obligatory. (q. v.) 2 S. & R.
2. It differs from a promissory note in this, that the latter is always
payable to order; and from a bond, because that instrument has always a
condition attached to it, on the performance of which it is satisfied. 5
Com. Dig. 194; 7 Com. 357.
BILL, TRUE. A true bill is an indictment approved of by a grand jury. Vide
Billa Vera; True Bill.CD
, Federal Reserve note
, acceptance bill
, accounts payable
, accounts receivable
, amount due
, bad debts
, bank acceptance
, bank check
, bank note
, batting order
, be a gas
, be a hit
, bill of account
, bill of complaint
, bill of draft
, bill of exchange
, bill of fare
, bill of lading
, blank check
, blood money
, build up
, call in
, carte du jour
, certificate of deposit
, certified check
, commercial paper
, companion bills amendment
, coral reef
, cry up
, demand bill
, demand draft
, demand payment
, dollar bill
, dragnet clause
, due bill
, enacting clause
, escalator clause
, exchequer bill
, farewell performance
, fiat money
, financial commitment
, flesh show
, floating debt
, folding money
, fractional note
, funded debt
, give a write-up
, give publicity
, government note
, hold-up bill
, hush money
, initiation fee
, iron man
, itemized bill
, legal-tender note
, letter of credit
, line up
, list of agenda
, make a hit
, money order
, national bank note
, national debt
, negotiable instrument
, negotiable note
, nolle prosequi
, note of hand
, olfactory organ
, omnibus bill
, open a show
, outstanding debt
, paper money
, post bills
, post up
, postal order
, privileged question
, program of operation
, promissory note
, public debt
, put on
, retaining fee
, saving clause
, send a statement
, set the stage
, sight bill
, sight draft
, stage presentation
, standing order
, statement of facts
, swan song
, theatrical performance
, time bill
, time draft
, trade acceptance
, treasury bill
, treasury note
, try out
, unfulfilled pledge
, write up