|n.||1.||A thought or a consideration offered in support of a determination or an opinion; a just ground for a conclusion or an action; that which is offered or accepted as an explanation; the efficient cause of an occurrence or a phenomenon; a motive for an action or a determination; proof, more or less decisive, for an opinion or a conclusion; principle; efficient cause; final cause; ground of argument.|
|2.||The faculty or capacity of the human mind by which it is distinguished from the intelligence of the inferior animals; the higher as distinguished from the lower cognitive faculties, sense, imagination, and memory, and in contrast to the feelings and desires. Reason comprises conception, judgment, reasoning, and the intuitional faculty. Specifically, it is the intuitional faculty, or the faculty of first truths, as distinguished from the understanding, which is called the discursive or ratiocinative faculty.|
We have no other faculties of perceiving or knowing anything divine or human, but by our five senses and our reason.
In common and popular discourse, reason denotes that power by which we distinguish truth from falsehood, and right from wrong, and by which we are enabled to combine means for the attainment of particular ends.
Reason is used sometimes to express the whole of those powers which elevate man above the brutes, and constitute his rational nature, more especially, perhaps, his intellectual powers; sometimes to express the power of deduction or argumentation.
|3.||Due exercise of the reasoning faculty; accordance with, or that which is accordant with and ratified by, the mind rightly exercised; right intellectual judgment; clear and fair deductions from true principles; that which is dictated or supported by the common sense of mankind; right conduct; right; propriety; justice.|
But law in a free nation hath been ever public reason; the enacted reason of a parliament, which he denying to enact, denies to govern us by that which ought to be our law; interposing his own private reason, which to us is no law.
|4.||(Math.) Ratio; proportion.|
When anything is proved by as good arguments as a thing of that kind is capable of, we ought not, in reason, to doubt of its existence.
|v. i.||1.||To exercise the rational faculty; to deduce inferences from premises; to perform the process of deduction or of induction; to ratiocinate; to reach conclusions by a systematic comparison of facts.|
|2.||Hence: To carry on a process of deduction or of induction, in order to convince or to confute; to formulate and set forth propositions and the inferences from them; to argue.|
|3.||To converse; to compare opinions.|
|v. t.||1.||To arrange and present the reasons for or against; to examine or discuss by arguments; to debate or discuss; as, I reasoned the matter with my friend.|
|2.||To support with reasons, as a request.|
|3.||To persuade by reasoning or argument; as, to reason one into a belief; to reason one out of his plan.|
|4.||To overcome or conquer by adducing reasons; - with down; as, to reason down a passion.|
|5.||To find by logical processes; to explain or justify by reason or argument; - usually with |
|Noun||1.||reason - a rational motive for a belief or action; "the reason that war was declared"; "the grounds for their declaration"|
|2.||reason - an explanation of the cause of some phenomenon; "the reason a steady state was never reached was that the back pressure built up too slowly"|
|3.||reason - the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination; "we are told that man is endowed with reason and capable of distinguishing good from evil"|
|4.||reason - the state of having good sense and sound judgment; "his rationality may have been impaired"; "he had to rely less on reason than on rousing their emotions"|
|5.||reason - a justification for something existing or happening; "he had no cause to complain"; "they had good reason to rejoice"|
|6.||reason - a fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion; "there is reason to believe he is lying"|
|Verb||1.||reason - decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion; "We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house"|
|2.||reason - present reasons and arguments|
|3.||reason - think logically; "The children must learn to reason"|
REASON. By reason is usually understood that power by which we distinguish
truth from falsehood, and right from wrong; and by which we are enabled to
combine means for the attainment of particular ends. Encyclopedie, h.t.;
Shef. on Lun. Introd. xxvi. Ratio in jure aequitas integra.
2. A man deprived of reason is not criminally responsible for his acts, nor can he enter into any contract.
3. Reason is called the soul of the law; for when the reason ceases, the law itself ceases. Co. Litt. 97, 183; 1 Bl. Com. 70; 7 Toull. n. 566.
4. In Pennsylvania, the judges are required in giving their opinions, to give the reasons upon which they are founded. A similar law exists in France, which Toullier says is one of profound wisdom, because, he says, les arrets ne sont plus comme autre fois des oracles muets qui commandent une obeissance passive; leur autorite irrefragable pour ou contre ceux qui les ont obtenus, devient soumise a la censure de la raison, quand on pretend les eriger en regles a suivre en d'autres cas semblables, vol. 6, n. 301; judgments are not as formerly silent oracles which require a passive obedience; their irrefragable authority, for or against those who have obtained them, is submitted to the censure of reason, when it is pretended to set them up as rules to be observed in other similar cases. But see what Duncan J. says in 14 S. & R. 240.